The following references have been used in the data gathering process for the development of the native plant database. Feel free to look for them in your local library, or on-line, as they are valuable resources and can provide further information to what is provided on this site.

Print References


Web References

  • A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and north-central United States and southeastern and south-central Canada
    George A. Petrides
    Houghton Mifflin Company
    ISBN 0-395-13651-2
  • A Field Guide to Western Trees: Western United States and Canada
    George A. Petrides
    Houghton Mifflin Company
    ISBN 0-395-46729-2
  • A Field Guide to Wildflowers: Northeastern and North-central North America
    Roger Tory Peterson
    ISBN 0-395-91172-9
  • A Flora of Waterton Lakes National Park
    Kuijt, Job
    The University of Alberta Press
    ISBN 0-88864-065-X
  • A guide to the ferns of Grey and Bruce Counties, Ontario
    The Bruce-Grey Plant Committee
    Stan Brown Printers Limited
    ISBN 0-9680279-2-X
  • A Guide to the Identification of Salix(willows) in Alberta
    by George W. Argus(web article)
  • A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America
    Donald Culross Peattie
    Bonanza Books
    Year unknown
    ISBN unknown
  • A Nature Company Guide: Natural Gardening
    Jim Knopf, Sally Wasowski, et al.
    Time-Life Books
    ISBN 0-7835-4750-1
  • A Source Book of Edible Plants
    Facciola. S. Cornucopia - Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
  • Allozyme Variation within and between Lasthenia minor and Its Derivative Species, L. maritima (Asteraceae)
    Daniel J. Crawford, Robert Ornduff, Micheal C. Vasey
    American Journal of Botany, Vol. 72, No. 8 (Aug., 1985), pp. 1177-1184
  • Aquatic Invasive Species brochure and fact sheets
  • Arboretum America: A Philosophy of the Forest
    Diana Beresford-Kroeger
    The University of Michigan Press
    ISBN 0-472-06851-2
  • Audubon Society - Eastern Forests
    Ann Sutton and Myron Sutton
    Alfred A Knopf, New York
    ISBN 0-394-73126-3
  • Authors: White D.J., E. Haber and C. Keddy.
    Title: Invasive plants of natural habitats in Canada: an integrated review of wetland and upland species and legislation governing their control.
    Publisher: Canadian Wildlife Service
    Year: 1993
    Online Link:
  • Botanica: The Illustrated A-Z of Over 10,000 Garden Plants and How to Cultivate Them
    (Several editors, consultants, etc.)
    Raincoast Books
    ISBN 1-55192-217-7
  • Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1965. Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. 762 p.
  • Brooklyn Botanic Garden: Butterfly Gardens
    Alcinda Lewis (editor)
    Brooklyn Botanic Garden Publications
    ISBN: 0-945352-88-3
  • Butterflies of Canada
    Ross Layberry, Peter Hall, and Donals Fontaine
    University of Toronto Press
    ISBN 0-8020-7881-8
  • Design Standards for Children's Environments
    Linda Cain Ruth
    McGraw-Hill Publishing
    ISBN 0070578095
  • Discovering Wild Plants Alaska, Western Canada, The Northwest
    Janice J. Schofield
    Alaska Northwest Books
    ISBN 0-88240-369-9
  • Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada
    Nancy J Turner; Adam F. Suzezawinski
    National Museum of Natural Science
    ISBN 0-660-00128-4
  • Encyclopedia of Trees: Canada and the United States,
    Benvie, Sam
    Key Porter Books
    ISBN 1-55263-086-2
  • Encyclopedia of Trees: Canada and the United States,
    Sam Benvie,
    Key Porter Books, 1999
    ISBN 1 55263 086 2
  • Evergreen Shrubs
    Fred C. Galle, C. Colston Burrell
    Time-Life Books
    ISBN 0-8094-6624-4
  • Farm weeds of Canada
    George H. Clark
    Algrove Publishing Limited
    ISBN 0-921335-81-4
  • Field Guide to North American Wildflowers
    John W. Thieret
    Alfred A. Knopf
    ISBN 0-375-40232-2
  • Flora of Alberta, 2nd edition
    Moss, E.H., revised by Packer, J.
    University of Toronto Press
    ISBN 0-8020-2508-0
  • Flora of New Brunswick
    Harold R. Hinds
    Biology Department
    University of New Brunswick
    ISBN 1-55131-015-5
  • Flowers - A Guide to Familiar American Flowers
    Herbert Zim and Alexander Martin
    Golden Press 1950
  • Forest Plants of Central Ontario
    Chambers, Legasy, Bentley
    Lone Pine
  • Forest Plants of Northeastern Ontario
    Karen Legasy
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-064-1
  • Go Wild! With Easy to Grow Prairie Wildflowers and Grasses
  • Grasses: an Identification guide
    Lauren Brown
    Houghton Mifflin Company
    ISBN 0-395-62881-4
  • Great Lakes Alvars
    Federation of Ontario Naturalists and The
    Nature Conservancy
    Date unknown
  • Green Teacher
    Summer 2006 Issue 79
    Sun Block p. 14 - 17
  • Grow Wild! Native Plant Gardening in Canada and Northern United States
    Lorraine Johnson
    Random House of Canada
    ISBN 0-679-30919-5
  • Grow, Cook, Heal with Elder
    Margie Gibson
    The Herb Companion magazine
    November 2009
  • Growing and Propagating Wildflowers of the United States and Canada
    Cullina, William
    Boston: Houghton-Mifflin
    ISBN 0-395-96609-4
  • Identification Guide to the Trees of Canade
    Jean Lauriault
    Fitzhenry and Whiteside
    ISBN 0-88902-564-9
  • Identification Guide to the Trees of Canade
    Jean Lauriault
    Fitzhenry and Whiteside
    ISBN 0-88902-564-9
  • Illustrated Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
    A. E. Porsild
    National Museum of Canada
    Bulletin 146
  • Istock, C.A., S.E. Wasserman and H. Zimmer. 1975.
    Ecology and evolution of the pitcher-plant mosquito: I. Population dynamics and laboratory response to food and Population density. Evolution 29:296-312.
  • Lorraine Johnson
    100 Easy-to-Grow Native Plants for Canadian Gardens
    Random House of Canada
    ISBN 0-679-309-87X
  • Manual of Grasses for North America
    Barkworth, Anderton, Capels, Long & Piep
    Utah State University Press,
    ISBN 978-0-87421-686-8
  • Manual of Woody Plants
    Michael A. Dirr
  • Margaret Ann Holm
    Naturescape British Columbia Resource booklet Southern Interior Guide
    Government of B.C.
    ISBN 0-7726-3260-x

  • National Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Western Region,Richard Spellenberg, Alfred A. Knopf, 1979, ISBN 0-394-50431-3
  • National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers: Western Region
    Richard Spellenberg Alfred A. Knopf, New York 2001 ISBN 0-375-40233-0
  • National Audubon Society: Field Guide to North American Butterflies
    National Audubon Society
    Alfred A. Knopf, New York
    ISBN: 0-394-51914-0
  • National Audubon Society: Field Guide to North American Trees, Eastern Region.
    National Audubon Society
    Alfred A. Knopf, New York
  • National Audubon Society: Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region
    National Audubon Society
    Alfred A. Knopf, New York
    ISBN: 0-394-50432-1
  • Native American Ethnobotany
    Moerman. D.
    Timber Press. Oregon.
    ISBN 0-88192-453-9
    Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information.
  • Native American Ethnobotany
    Moerman. D.
    Timber Press. Oregon.
    ISBN 0-88192-453-9
    Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information.
  • Native Plants in the Coastal Garden
    April Perringer, with Brenda Costanzo
    Whitecap Books
    ISBN 1-55285-331-4
  • Native trees and shrubs and related cultivars
    Sara Williams
  • Native Trees of Canada
    R.C. Hosie
    Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd.
  • Native Trees of Canada, Sixth Edition
    Department of Forestry
  • Native Trees, Shrubs & Vines: a guide to using, growing, and propagating North American woody plants
    William Cullina
    Boston: Houghton-Mifflin
  • Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America
    Gary Hightshoe
    NY: van Nostrand Reinhold
    ISBN 0-422-23274-8
  • Natural Gardens - A Complete Guide to Gardening with Native Trees, Wildflowers and Grasses
    Liz Primeau
    Fenn Publishing Company LTD.
    ISBN 1-55168-288-5
  • NatureScape Alberta: Creating and caring for wildlife habitat at home
    Pearman, Myrna and T. Pike
    Federation of Alberta Naturalists
    ISBN 0-9685765-0-8
  • Naturescape B.C. Southern Interior Native Plant & Animal Booklet.
  • Naturescape British Columbia
    Susan Campbell
    Publisher N/A
    Year of publication N/A
    ISBN 0-7726-2639-1
  • Naturescape British Columbia. Native plant and animal booklet, Georgia Basin
    ISBN 0-7726-2639-1
  • New England Wild Flower Society
    Arthur Haines
  • Newmaster, Steven G.
    Ontario Plant List
    Ontario Forest Institute (MNR)
    ISBN 0-7778-7318-4
  • Non-Native Species Common to the Toronto Area

    Prepared by: Stefan Harhay
    For the Taskforce to Bring Back the Don
  • Ontario Native Plants: 2002 Resource Guide
    Ontario Native Plants Company
  • Ontario Wildflowers
    Linda Kershaw
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55101-285-7
  • Ontario Wildflowers
    Linda Kershaw
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-285-7
  • Our Northern Shrubs
    Harriet Keeler
    Dover Publications 1969
  • Plant of Coastal British Columbia including Washington, Oregon and Alaska;
    Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon;
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN-13: 978-1-55105-532-9
    ISBN-10: 1-55105-532-5
  • Plantes sauvages des lacs, rivières et tourbières
    Guide d'identification Fleurbec
    Fleurbec, éditeur
    ISBN 2-920174-10-x
  • Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls
    Nigel Dunnett and Noel Kingsbury
    Timber Press Inc.
    ISBN 0-88192-640-X
  • Planting the Seed: A Guide to Establishing Prairie and Meadow Communities in Southern Ontario.
    Delaney, Kim et al.
    Downsview, Ontario: Environment Canada
  • Plants of Carolinian Canada
    Larry Lamb / Gail Rhynard
    Federation of Ontario Naturalists
  • Plants of Coastal British Columbia
    Jim Pojar, Andy MacKinnon
    Lone Pine
    ISBN 1-55105-042-0
  • Plants of Northern British Columbia
    Andy Mackinnon, Jim Pojar & Ray Coupe
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-015-3
  • Plants of the Rocky Mountains
    Kershaw,L., MacKinnon, A., Pojar, J.
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-088-9
  • Plants of the Southern Interior British Columbia
    Roberta Parish, Ray Coupe, Dennis Lloyd
    Lone Pine
    ISBN 1-55105-057-9
  • Plants of the Southern Interior British Columbia and the Inland Northwest
    Parish, et. al.
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 10:1-55105-219-9
    ISBN 13:9781-55105-219-9
  • Plants of the Western Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland, Johnson, Derek, et al., Lone Pine Publishing, 1995.
  • Practical Guide to Gardening in Canada
    Editor-in-Chief: Christopher Brickell; Editor-in-Chief for Canada: Trevor Cole
    The Reader's Digest Association (Canada) Ltd.
    ISBN 0-88850-206-0
  • Rare Vascular Plants of Alberta by the Alberta National Plant Council, ed. Kershaw, L., University of Alberta Press
    ISBN 0-888-64319-5
  • Reader's Digest, North American Wildlife - Wildflowers, The Reader's Digest Association Inc., New York, 1998
  • Reader's Digest, Trees and Nonflowering Plants,The Reader's Digest Association 2000
    ISBN 0-7621-0037-0
  • Restoring Nature's Place: A Guide to Naturalizing Ontario Parks and Greenspace.
    Daigle, Jean-Marc and Havinga, Donna.
    Schomberg, Ontario: Ecological Outlook Consulting.
  • Rocky Mountain Wildflowers
    J. Craighead, F. Craighead, R. Davis
    Houghton Mifflin Co.,
    ISBN 0-395-183243
  • Salicaceae of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago,
    by G.W. Argus, C.L. McJannet and M.L. Dallwitz
  • Scented Flora of the World
    Genders. R.
    Robert Hale. London.
    ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
  • Shrubs of Ontario
    Soper, J.H. and M.L. Heimburger
    ISBN 0-88854-283-6
  • Stewards in the City: a handbook for Greater Toronto stewards
  • Tallgrass Communities of Southern Ontario
    Lindsay Roger
    World Wildlife Fund Canada
  • Terry McGlade has experience designing and establishing green roofs in Toronto, through his company GARDENS IN THE SKY.
  • The Alaska - Yukon Wild Flowers Guide
    Helen White, editor
    Alaska Northwest Publishing Co.
    ISBN 0-88240-032-0
  • The Audubon Society Fild Guide to North American Wildflowers
    William A. Niering
    Canticleer Press, Inc.
    ISBn 0-394-50432-1
  • The essential oils. 6 vols.
    Guenther, E.
    D. van Nostrand Co., Inc.
    Toronto, New York, London.
  • The Flora of Canada
    H.J. Scoggan
    National Museums of Canada
    ISBN 0-660-00016-4
  • The Garden Plants Encyclopedia
    Klaas T. Noordhuis with David Tomlinson
    Key Porter Books
  • The Horticulturist II
    Glen P. Lumis, Pat Tucker & Harold Crawford
    University of Guelph
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees
    David Moore and John White
    Timber Press
    ISBN 0-88192-520-9
  • The Native Garden
    David Howarth and Kahlee Keane
  • The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Huxley. A. MacMillan Press 1992. ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  • The ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario
    Timothy Dickinson, Deborah Metsger, Jenny Bull, Richard Dickinson
    Royal Ontario Museum, McClelland and Stewart
  • The Sibley Guide to Trees,
    David Allen Sibley
    Alfred A. Knopf, New York
    ISBN 978-0-375-41519-7
  • Title: Emergence and establishment of Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) (crested wheatgrass) seedlings in a sandhills prairie of Central Saskatchewan.
    Author: Romo, J.T.
    Publisher: Natural Areas Association
    Year: 2005
  • Tree & Shrub Gardening for Ontario Alison Beck, Kathy Renwald Lone Pine Publishing 2001 ISBN 1-55105-273-3
  • TREEmendous trees and shrubs
    The TREEmendous Saskatchewan Foundation Inc.
    Campbell Printing Ltd.
    Year of publication unknown
    no ISBN number
  • Trees in Canada
    John Laird Farrar
    Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited
    ISBN 1-55041-199-3
  • Trees of Ontario
    Linda Kershaw
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-274-1
  • Trees, Shrubs & Flowers to Know in British Columbia & Washington
    C.P. Lyons & Bill Merilees
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN 1-55105-044-7
  • Vascular Plant of Continental Northwest Territories, Canada
    Porsild, A.E. , Cody, W.J.
    National Museums of Canada
    ISBN 0-660-00119-5
  • Wetland Plants of Ontario
    Steven Newmaster, Allan Harris and Linda Kershaw
    Lone Pine Publishing
    ISBN: 1-55105-059-5
  • Wild Flowers of British Columbia
    Clark, Lewis J.
    Gray's Publishing Limited
    ISBN 0-88826-036-9
  • Wildflowers
    Houghton Mifflin Company
  • Wildflowers in the Field and Forest, A Fiel Guide to the Northeastern United States Steven Clemants & Carol Gracie
    Oxford University Press
    ISBN 0-19-515005-8
  • Wildflowers of Algonquin Provincial Park
    Dan Strickland and John LeVay
    The Friends of Algonquin Park
  • Wildflowers of Eastern America
    John E. Klimas and James A. Cunningham
    Alfred A. Knopf
    ISBN 0-394-49362-1
  • Wildflowers of the Canadian Erie Islands
    Mary Celestino
    Essex County Field Naturalists' Club
    ISBN 0-9689917-0-X
  • Wildflowers of the Canadian Rockies
    George Scotter, Halle Flygare
    Hurtig Publishers
    ISBN 0-88830-285-1
  • Wildflowers of the Eastern United States
    Wilbur H. Duncan, Marion B. Duncan
    The University of Georgia Press
    ISBN 0-8203-2107-9
  • Wildflowers of the southern Interior of British Columbia and adjacent Parts of Washington, Idaho, and Montana
    J. Burbridge
    University of British Columbia Press
    ISBN 0-774-803207
  • Wildflowers of the Yukon and Northwestern Canada including adjacent Alaska
    J.G. Trelawny
    Sono Nis Press
    ISBN 888260970
  • Wildflowers of Western America
    Robert Orr and Margaret Orr
    Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
  • William Carey Grimm
    The Illustrated Book of Wildflowers and Shrubs
    Stackpole Books
    ISBN 0-8117-3085-9
  • York University Greenroof project; Gavin Miller; 2004-2005
  • Your Guide to Wildflowers of Prince Edward Island
    Katherine Clough
    Ragweed Press
    ISBN 0-921556-27-6


Person References

  • Ferris, Heather
    Clinical Nurse Educator,
    Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre
  • Denise Philippe
  • Bill Moses
    Evergreen Native Plant Database Volunteer - Image Entry
  • Robin McLeod
    Evergreen Regional Associate
  • Gilman and Watson
    Gilman Edward F., professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Watson Dennis G., associate professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.
  • Steve Vargas
    Local biologist. Nature walk on Toronto Island
  • Bruce Day
    Manager Grounds and Maintenance Toronto District School Board
  • Janice Palmer
    My information comes from a conversation with Janice Palmer, a retired Biology teacher and textbook editor.
  • Celina Tuttle
    NPD researcher and photographer
  • John D. Ambrose, PhD
    Professor at Guelph University
  • book
    Reference - The Handbook of Vermont Trees, Burns & Otis, Bulletin 194, VT Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Vermont, 1916.

    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Acer spicatum. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (2003, March). Fire Effects Information System, [Online].

  • Sarah Brierley
    Sara is a garden coordinator for Evergreen.