Plant Detail

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Picea mariana

* Common Name:

black spruce, shortleaf black spruce, bog spruce, swamp spruce, water spruce

* Genus:

Picea

* Species:

mariana

Subspecies:

* Family (scientific):

Pinaceae

* Family (common):

Pine

Synonyms :

* Distribution in Canada:

British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
P.E.I.
Newfoundland
Yukon
N.W.T.
Nunavut

 

Photographer: Peter Bisson.

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* denotes fields that are currently complete in the database. The other information is not yet complete.

Habitat

Ecozone(s):

Taiga Plains
Taiga Shield
Boreal Shield
Atlantic Maritime
Mixedwood Plains
Boreal Plains
Taiga Cordillera
Boreal Cordillera
Montane Cordillera
Hudson Plains

Natural Habitat(s):

Woodland (35-60% cover)
Forest Edge
Swamp/Marsh (nutrient rich)

Habitat Garden(s):

Erosion Control?

Characteristics
 
Growing Conditions

* Plant Type:

Tree

Moisture Requirements: Moist, Wet

Light Requirements: Sun, Shade

Soil Requirements: Clay, Sand, Loam, Humus Enriched (forest floor)

Acidophile

Temperature Zone: 2

Evergreen?

Yes

Average Height:

12 to 25 m

Tolerances:

Flower Info
 
Fruit/Seed Info

Showy flowers?

No

Showy fruit/seeds?

Yes

Bloom time:

Apr to May

Edible for humans?

Flower Colour(s):

Yellow, Red

Fruit/Seed Colour(s):

Purple, Brown

Miscellaneous
 
Uses

Fragrant Flowers?

Yes

Urban Oasis, Stewards in the City, and Eco Superior are specific Evergreen programs that some plants are used in.

Fragrant Foliage?

Yes

Program & Other Uses:

Fall colours?

Distinctive bark?

Poisonous to humans?

Thorns or prickles?

Attracts wildlife?

Squirrels
Birds
Butterfly Larvae
Other Showy Insects

Larval host for:

Columbia silkmoth, Bog Elfin butterfly (Callophrys lanoraieensis)

Provincial tree/flower?

Newfoundland

Plant Watch species?

Interesting Tidbits
 
References

Long wood fibres of black spruce are most commonly used for pulpwood, especially for producing high quality papers. (TREEmendous)

A thing of the past now is the gathering of spruce gum, by gummers on snowshoes, carrying long poles fitted with chisels to knock off the resinous exudations. In the old lumber camps, spruce gum was the chewing gum. (Peattie)

Although slow growing, these trees can live for 100-200 years.(USDA PLANTS)

Sensory Aspect: Aromatic

This species is deer resistant. (Evergreen)

Larval food plants

Canadian BIF Butterflies

USDA PLANTS Database

Wild Flower Centre

Trees of Ontario
Linda Kershaw
Lone Pine Publishing
2001
ISBN 1-55105-274-1

TREEmendous trees and shrubs
The TREEmendous Saskatchewan Foundation Inc.
Campbell Printing Ltd.
Year of publication unknown
no ISBN number

A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America
Donald Culross Peattie
Bonanza Books
Year unknown
ISBN unknown

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